The elbow can be fractured in many types of accidents. Most commonly, elbow fractures are caused by a fall on the outstretched arm, a direct blow with another object, or sudden deceleration. Elbow fractures can result from falls, motor vehicle accidents, bicycle accidents, and sports-related injuries. Orthopedic doctors perform surgery to fix broken elbow fractures. The surgery is called an open reduction and internal fixation. This involves the use of screws, pins, plates, and a bone graft. Relief from pain is usually achieved after the surgery.